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Authority record

Freeman, Barbara M.

  • Person
Barbara M. Freeman holds a Bachelor of Journalism degree and a Master of Arts in Canadian Studies from Carleton University. She graduated with a Ph.D. in History from Concordia University in Montreal. She began teaching at Carleton University in Ottawa in 1980 after a career in broadcast journalism. As an adjunct research professor of journalism at Carleton University, her key research areas were communications history, and gender and diversity issues in the media in the School of Journalism and Communication. She is the author of Beyond Bylines: Media Workers and Women’s Rights in Canada (2011), The Satellite Sex: The Media and Women’s Issues in English Canada, 1966-1971 (2001), and of Kit’s Kingdom: the Journalism of Kathleen Blake Colema (1989). In these essays, she examines historical cases of women who worked in print and broadcast media and were committed activists as well. Her case studies illustrate how the language and foci of women’s rights have changed from the late 19th century until the year 2000 as her subjects sought equality in education, suffrage, fair employment practices, reproductive and sexual freedom, and the rights of indigenous women. She has also published articles in several anthologies and journals. She is a founding and executive member of the Media and Communication History Committee and a member of the Canadian Committee on Women’s History.

Women's Liberation Bookmobile

  • Corporate body
  • 1974-1975

CORA was the creation of Judith Quinlan, Boo Watson and Ellen Woodsworth, three young women from Toronto who began planning the feminist bookmobile in 1973. They raised funds, promoted their plan, and bought and outfitted an old school bus, transforming it into a mobile library to promote information about women. A government grant provided the funding which got the wheels turning for the bus to begin its travels through rural Ontario in 1974.

Four other women joined them for the summer. “Women’s Liberation Bookmobile” was painted in large letters on CORA’s side. Inside the bus, racks held books (for sale, loan and to give away) by, for and about women, their history and the growing women’s liberation movement.

CORA was named for E. Cora Hind, a pioneer suffragist, grain grower and writer. The motivation for the travelling bookmobile was to make women’s books, periodicals and newspapers more readily available to women in small towns. Judith and Ellen wanted to help women in isolated situations find each other, facilitate communication and demystify women’s liberation, encourage schools, libraries and community centres to be aware of women’s resources and materials, and encourage women to write about their own experiences.

The women who operated CORA worked collectively, with a flexible attitude always open to new ideas. They would arrive in town, displaying their, “Women Working” sign, choose a conspicuous parking spot and then haggle with town officials for permission to park. Then they would set up, using an outdoor display rack (until it was run over in Huntsville!), distributing flyers about CORA, contacting local media, directly leafleting on the town streets.

Many women, young and old, from all backgrounds, visited CORA. Women’s groups were beginning to form in some locations, and CORA’s staff participated in meetings. The bookmobile carried information from women’s centres across Ontario and gave away literature. Women were delighted to see CORA the feminist bookmobile in their town.

The adventures of CORA were recounted in a Toronto feminist newspaper, The Other Woman, in 1975. In one town, Boo and Ellen got thrown out of the pool hall because, “there was no women’s washroom.” Camp counselors came and talked. One said, “This night might change my whole life.” The presence of CORA, the Feminist Bookmobile, in that summer of 1974, turned heads and raised consciousness.

Women's Place

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-

In early 1972, a group of women formed the Ottawa Women's Centre Association, and drafted a proposal for a centre which would allow women to meet and pool their skills and resources. The Ottawa Women's Centre (OWC) was the result of their proposal. The centre, offering meeting space, counselling, information and education, became the hub of women's liberation activity in Ottawa from its opening in July 1972 until its demise in 1980.

Like many grassroots feminist organizations of the 1970s, the Women's Centre wanted to avoid traditional methods of organizing; the aim was to leave as much power as possible in the hands of the members themselves. Consequently, the OWC was structured as a collective, run by staff, volunteers and members together, and using consensus to decide on centre policy and direction. However, as the Women's Centre grew, the need for more structured organization became apparent, and while the collective structure was maintained, in 1974 a Policy Committee was elected to be in charge of the major decisions. It was also decided, in 1973, that the centre would be off limits to men.

The Women's Centre offered diverse services which revolved mainly around crisis help, counselling, information and support of various kinds. They were also very active in the community, helping to organize a number of events, such as the Native Women's March to Ottawa in 1979, protests against federal cutbacks affecting poor women, and "reclaim the night" parades. They inspired, supported and helped to organize many other women's organizations in the Ottawa community, such as the Rape Crisis Centre, Women's Career Counselling, Interval House and Upstream, a women's newspaper. In 1975, the scope of their programs had grown so large that it was decided to split the two components of service and action. At that time, Women's Info, Referral and Counselling, while continuing to share the same space and Policy Committee, became a separate organization.

Financial support for the OWC came from a number of sources, including individual donations and support from other community organizations such as the Ottawa Women's Business and Professional Club. A major fundraising drive and benefit events were held in 1973, 1974 and 1976. The OWC also received grant money through the International Women's Year Program, the Local Initiatives Program and the City of Ottawa. In 1975, they were awarded a $10,000 grant from the Regional Municipality on the condition that they incorporate and register as a charitable institution. However, this decision was strongly opposed by some members who saw the potential for serious problems in reliance on government funding. These problems were illustrated the following year when the same grant was revoked. Although the decision was later reversed, the OWC was temporarily thrown into a funding crisis by the controversy.

In 1978 an open meeting was called to discuss the future of the OWC and it was decided that they would work towards becoming self-sufficient. A Business Committee was formed to help with this goal, and the result was the creation of Chez Nous, a small cafe which opened on the premises in February 1979. It was hoped that revenues from Chez Nous would allow the centre to survive without government support. Unfortunately, difficulties connected to their application for a liquor license threw them into even deeper financial trouble and they were forced to close in May 1980.

The idea for Women's Place/Place Aux Femmes originally grew out discussions with Mayor Marion Dewar held in January 1984. The community representatives and individuals who met with the Mayor felt there was a need for a centralized telephone information and referral service specifically for women.

A feasibility study on the need for such a service was commissioned in 1984 by an interim Board named Women's Info. The study confirmed the need for one source to co-ordinate and provide information on the services available to women. Those surveyed also pointed to the problem of gaps in service and the need for outreach and advocacy, and so it was agreed that, although the service would begin with information and referral, it would grow into the areas of support, advocacy and direct services.

In late 1984, while plans were being made for the new service, numerous concerns were raised about duplication of existing services, particularly with the Community Information Centre. To deal with these concerns, Women's Info decided to accelerate their growth plans and were given a grant of $10,000 to gather support and suggestions for the new proposal which included a wider range of services and a physical space for personal access and Centre activities.

Women's Info consulted the community extensively through mail-out questionnaires, pamphlets, and in-depth interviews, and discussions were also held with Community Information Centre representatives in an attempt to clarify respective roles and objectives. It was agreed that, besides providing information and referral, the new women's centre would also help identify and advocate for unmet needs and resources, and would work to heighten awareness of women's issues. The new proposal had extensive community support, and on October 16, Ottawa City Council approved funding. On June 12, 1986, Women's Place/Place aux Femmes officially opened at 242 Besserer Street.
From the beginning, Women's Place was concerned with reaching out to women who were isolated or disadvantaged because of age, ethnicity, poverty, disability or a combination of factors. Thus, their services, operating guidelines, and structure reflected the need to be inclusive and accessible. They did regular and extensive community outreach, established a francophone services collective and worked closely with other organizations to identify and work to solve problems caused by gaps in service. The Board was made up of both staff, volunteers and community members, and the organization was operated as a collective, with everyone sharing in the decision making process. Decision-making positions could not be held by men, although they could have limited access to services and information.

Like many women's organizations, Women's Place faced its share of financial problems, relying for funding on individual donations and government grants. In September 1986, only a few months after their official opening, their budget was reduced from $80,000 to $40,000, necessitating the cutting of 3 full time positions and many services. Another cut, in 1987, was met with a huge fundraising effort which included a reception for Bonnie Robichaud on Parliament Hill, film nights, a poetry reading, dances, a March for Peace and a music night. Since 1988, Women's Place/Place aux Femmes has relied mainly on grants from the provincial and local governments. In 1991, it moved from Besserer Street to Bruyere Street, where it rents the top half of a local community centre from the City.

The aims of Women's Place today are much the same as they were when it opened in 1986, but lack of funds has decreased the scope of their services somewhat. A lot of their work today is done in support of or in conjunction with other community and women's organizations.

Sistren Theatre Collective

  • Corporate body
  • 1977-
Sistren Theatre Collective was established in 1977 in Kingston, Jamaica and is an independent organization. It uses theatre to explore issues of discrimination faced by working-class black women. Since 1980 it has travelled throughout Jamaica, the Caribbean, North America, Europe and Africa performing plays and engaging with women.

Ottawa Women's Centre

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-1980

In early 1972, a group of women formed the Ottawa Women's Centre Association and drafted a proposal for a centre which would allow women to meet and pool their skills and resources. The Ottawa Women's Centre (OWC) was the result of their proposal. The Centre offered a space for meetings, counselling, training and education, and it became the hub of women's liberation activity in Ottawa from its opening in July 1972 until its demise in 1980.

Like many grassroots feminist organizations of the 1970s, the Women's Centre wanted to avoid traditional methods of organizing; the aim was to leave as much power as possible in the hands of the members themselves. Consequently, the OWC was structured as a collective, run by staff, volunteers and members together, and using consensus to decide on centre policy and direction. However, as the Women's Centre grew, the need for more structured organization became apparent, and while the collective structure was maintained, in 1974 a Policy Committee was elected to be in charge of the major decisions. It was also decided, in 1973, that the centre would be off limits to men.

The Women's Centre offered various services which revolved mainly around crisis help, counselling, information and support of various kinds. They were also very active in the community, helping to organize a number of events, such as the Native Women's March to Ottawa in 1979, protests against federal cutbacks affecting poor women, and "reclaim the night" parades. They inspired, supported and helped to organize many other women's organizations in the Ottawa community, such as the Rape Crisis Centre, Women's Career Counselling, Interval House and Upstream, a women's newspaper. In 1975, the scope of their programs had grown so large that it was decided to split the two components of service and action. At that time, Women's Info, Referral and Counselling became a separate organization while continuing to share the same space and Policy Committee.

Financial support for the OWC came from a number of sources, including individual donations and support from other community organizations such as the Ottawa Women's Business and Professional Club. A major fundraising drive and benefit events were held in 1973, 1974 and 1976. The OWC also received grant money through the International Women's Year Program, the Local Initiatives Program and the City of Ottawa. In 1975, they were awarded a $10,000 grant from the Regional Municipality on the condition that they incorporate and register as a charitable institution. However, this decision was strongly opposed by some members who saw the potential for serious problems in reliance on government funding. These problems were illustrated the following year when the same grant was revoked. Although the decision was later reversed, the OWC was temporarily thrown into a funding crisis by the controversy.

In 1978 an open meeting was called to discuss the future of the OWC and it was decided that they would work towards becoming self-sufficient. A Business Committee was formed to help with this goal, and the result was the creation of Chez Nous, a small cafe which opened on the premises in February 1979. It was hoped that revenues from Chez Nous would allow the centre to survive without government support. Unfortunately, difficulties connected to their application for a liquor license threw them into even deeper financial trouble and they were forced to close in May 1980.

The Women’s Place / Place aux femmes (fonds 10-020) was opened in 1986, after extensive feasibility studies and community surveys to determine exactly what type of service should be offered in Ottawa. The basic organisation, philosophy and services of Women’s Place were very similar to those of the previous Ottawa Women’s Centre, but there was more emphasis on meeting the needs of diverse groups of women in the community, and on working together with other organisations and agencies.

Toronto Wages for Housework Committee

  • Corporate body
  • 1973-1986

The Toronto Wages for Housework Committee (WFH) was a women’s group based in Toronto which began its operations around 1973. This committee was a branch of an international organization of the same name. It demanded that the federal and provincial governments pay wages for housework. It believed that housework kept women in the home, without financial independence from men. It also fought against the lower wages women received in paid employment, which also kept women dependent on a man’s income. The group attempted to rectify the inequality by launching campaigns in which isolated women could come together and struggle for their causes.

The Toronto Wages for Housework Committee gathered a large number of articles, pamphlets and newsletters from various organizations including the Wages for Housework Committee from other countries, organizations across Canada and several organizations from the Toronto area. The Wages for Housework Committee of Toronto often attended conferences on women's issues and kept themselves aware of the activities of other organizations. They were also active in organizing campaigns and producing articles related to wage issues. Although the date of their demise is not known, it appears from the documents that they ceased operation sometime in 1986.

Midwifery Task Force of Ontario

  • Corporate body
  • 1983-1993
In June 1983, a small group of midwives, consumers, health care providers and other supporters of midwifery met to discuss the status of midwifery in Ontario. Historically, Ontario had a tradition of lay midwives who attended the births of family, friends and neighbours. This tradition of community midwifery began to decline around the turn of the century until, by the 1950s, midwifery had all but disappeared in Ontario. In the 1970s, the practice of midwifery began to re-emerge and was influenced by the natural childbirth movement principles that pregnancy and birth are normal, healthy, family events and that pregnant women themselves should be the primary decision makers about the health care they receive.
Subsequently, the Midwifery Task Force of Ontario (MFT-O), a community-based lobby group, was established to promote legislation and recognition of midwifery. Around the same time, the association of practicing midwives (Ontario Association of Midwives) and nurse-midwives association (Ontario Nurse-Midwives Association) joined together to form the Association of Ontario Midwives (AOM). The MTF-O gained support from women and their families seeking an alternative to the medical model of childbirth and maternity care. Over the next several years, the AOM and the MTF-O worked together to advocate the creation of midwifery as a recognized profession. This culminated in Bill 56, the Midwifery Act which was passed on December 31, 1993 making Ontario the first province in Canada to recognize, regulate and fund midwifery as part of the health care system.

British Columbia Federation of Women

  • Corporate body
  • 1974-1989
The British Columbia Federation of Women is an umbrella group for women's organizations in British Columbia. It was founded in 1974. Its goal was to organize province-wide action on women's issues, and it was particularly concerned with health, child care, education and employment. The Federation's objective was also to provide a network of support for women’s diverse struggles and “to overcome the physical and cultural isolation faced by all our sisters in this society ’’. Only women groups were affiliated with the federation. BCFW coordinators defined the organisation as “a linking together mechanism”. At the Annual General Convention delegates from each of the regions elected committee members and voted on policy resolutions. Vancouver Rape Relief was a member of the British Columbia Federation of Women and was one of the few remaining groups when the federation folded in 1989.
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