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Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ottawa (BWCPO)

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1933-

The Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ontario (BPWCO) was formed as a provincial wing of the Canadian Business and Professional Women's Clubs, itself a charter member of the International Federation. In 1933, the Business and Professional Women's Club of Ottawa (BPWCO), a local branch of the Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ontario, was created. Membership to a local Business and Professional Women's Club allowed access to provincial, national and international membership.

In 1948, the Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ontario (BPWCO) had its first annual provincial conference. It was headed by a board of directors who met before and after the annual meeting. An interim board meeting was held in the fall and the executive began to meet on a more regular basis. In Ontario, the local clubs were grouped in 12 regions, each comprising of a maximum of 12 clubs. Each individual club elected a regional advisor among its membership. Regional advisors acted as a liaison between the board of directors and other clubs, visited the clubs yearly, and encouraged the creation of additional clubs.

In 1970, the Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ontario (BPWCO) went through a reorganization. Regions were disbanded and the number of districts was increased from four to seven. Changes were also added to the Board of Directors. The number of vice-presidents decreased from four to one and seven district directors were appointed.

The Business and Professional Women's Club of Ottawa and Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Ontario hosted various activities such as contests for career women and Business Women's Week. Both organizations were also involved in lobbying, the creation of scholarships, as well as the presentation of briefs and submissions to government commissions and the United Nations.

The objects of all clubs were quite similar: to encourage equal status for women in economic, civil and political life; to promote the interests of business and professional women; to encourage education and occupational training for girls and women; and to promote cooperation between professional and business women.

Canadian Slovak League (CSL)

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1932-

The Canadian Slovak League (CSL) was founded in December 1932 by Andrej Kučera, Juraj Rodoš and Pavol A. Sabo, representatives of the Winnipeg Branch of the Slovak League of America. The founding members of the CSL wanted to create an organization catering to the needs of Slovak-Canadians and sought to broaden the social and financial support to their members. In 1934, this organization received a “Dominion Charter” therefore making the CSL a fraternal benefit society. For the remainder of the 1930s, this organization continued to support Slovakia’s independence as promised by the Pittsburg Agreement. It also paid death benefits according to the size of its treasury to deceased members’ family. The Oshawa and Hamilton branches of the CSL established the First District of the Assembly followed by the first Slovak Day in Oshawa. Slovak Days in cities such as Toronto, Hamilton, Welland, Montréal and Windsor would soon follow.

In the 1940s, the CSL was involved in the Canadian war effort. Members purchased war bonds and participated in the war effort. The CSL donated an ambulance to the Red Cross. During these years, the CSL established its organ newspaper Kanadský Slovak, edited respectively by Štefan Hreha, Konštantin Čuleň, Štefan Reištetter, Andrej Brazda and Julius Behul. Upon World War II’s and the beginning of Communist regime in Czechoslovakia, the CSL sent a delegation to Ottawa to persuade the Canadian government to accept Slovak refugees fleeing the Communist regime, a situation intensified by the Pact of Warsaw in 1968.

In 1954, the CSL was reorganized as an insurance company. Members now had to pay monthly fees according to their age. Due to this new policy, membership dropped making this organization return to its previous role as a fraternal organization. Culturally, the CSL continued to support Slovak Halls where plays and Slovak folk dance groups performed culminating in a performance at Expo ’67. CSL members also sponsored radio shows and television programs.

With the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1989, the CSL demanded that a full Canadian diplomatic post be created in Bratislava. To this day, the CSL continues to help Slovak immigrants arriving in Canada and promotes Slovak culture and heritage with activities in various branches.

Ottawa Rape Crisis Centre

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1974-

In 1974, three women (Rosemary Billings, Gaby Van Heusen and Diane Williams) originally active in the Ottawa Women’s Centre had the idea of starting a crisis centre for victims of rape and sexual assault in the Ottawa-Hull area. A grant was secured to support the project, and on December 15th, 1974, the centre officially opened. The original goals of the Ottawa Rape Crisis Centre were to 1) provide direct assistance to rape victims through a volunteer-operated crisis phone line, casework and accompaniment services, and group counselling 2) to educate the public toward a change in attitude and treatment of the issue of rape. Representatives of the centre spoke to high schools and other organizations to raise awareness as well as liaising with police stations and hospitals with the aim of working together to help victims of rape.

In 1976, the Ottawa Rape Crisis Centre was comprised of four full-time staff and 40 volunteers. A board of directors made up of community members was established in early 1976 to provide support for a Demonstration Project grant submission to the Federal Government Health & Welfare department. Conflicts between the board and certain staff members ensued in 1976 and 1977 which threatened the success of the centre; internal conflicts occurred again in 1982. The Ottawa Rape Crisis Centre continues to operate in 2019 and has expanded to include three full time and eight part-time staff members, project staff, and approximately 50 volunteers who respond to the crisis line, provide education outreach, and sit on the board.

Feminist Party of Canada

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1979-1982

The Feminist Party of Canada (FPC) developed during the feminist movement in response to a lack of representation of women in government and to the many injustices women and minorities continued to face. The party began on June 10, 1979 at an event held by a number of feminists at the Ontario Institute for the Study of Education (OISE), which attracted over 600 people. The event included readings and songs, as well as speeches delivered by Marg Evans, Angela Miles, Mary O'Brien and Laura Sabia.

The primary objective of the FPC was to have an impact on the political system by providing a feminist perspective, and in turn, tackle many of the neglected issues concerning women. The party quickly received attention from the media and was very active while it existed—holding events, sending out newsletters and flyers, communicating with politicians and fighting for official party status. Though the Feminist Party of Canada never became an official party, ending only three years after it began, the party influenced many women to become politically active and brought attention to numerous social, economic, political and educational issues affecting not only women, but all of society.

Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1973-1995

The Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW) was established by the federal government of Canada on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women (RCSW) in 1973. The primary purpose of its creation was to educate the public and make an impact on the issues and concerns facing Canadian women, including: access to employment in male dominated professions, equal pay, female reproduction rights, child care, representation in government, constitutional reform, health care, sexual assault, violence against women, and more.

The CACSW was comprised of one president, two vice presidents, fifteen regionally representative members working part-time, and approximately thirty office staff members. After years of providing publications on women's research and helping to reform the constitution, the CACSW was eventually dismantled on April 1, 1995.

The University Women's Club of Ottawa

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1910-
The University Women's Club of Ottawa was formed on 15 April, 1910. The purpose of the Club was to advance the interests of women and to serve the community in social, educational and cultural areas. The club awarded scholarships to secondary school and university students. It participated in the establishment of the Ottawa Little Theater, The Elizabeth Frye Society of Ottawa and the National School Volunteer Association. The Club presents the view of women on contemporary economic, social and cultural problems. It is affiliated with the Canadian Federation of University Women.

Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW)

  • Pessoa coletiva
  • 1976 -

CRIAW-ICREF est « un institut de recherche qui offre des outils pour aider les organisations à agir afin de promouvoir la justice sociale et l’égalité pour toutes les femmes » (, consulté le 3 juin 2021). CRIAW-ICREF est une organisation canadienne à but non lucratif basée sur les membres. Elle privilégie le développement de la recherche féministe et sa diffusion à des fins d’éducation et de défense de droits. Elle est la seule organisation féministe nationale bilingue au Canada privilégiant exclusivement la recherche.

L’ICREF été fondé par des féministes - universitaires, membres de la communauté et activistes - dans le sillage de l'Année internationale de la femme (1975) pour répondre au manque de recherches existantes sur les femmes et leurs expériences. Le congrès de fondation de l’organisation constitué de soixante-dix membres, s’est tenu à Ottawa en avril 1976. Durant ce congrès, les objectifs ont été établis, les statuts adoptés, un conseil d’administration élu, et le nom de la nouvelle organisation a été choisi, soit l’Institut canadien de recherches sur les femmes. En novembre 1976, une tribune sur la recherche et les femmes s’est tenue à l’Université Mount Saint Vincent à Halifax. Cette rencontre a constitué les prémices du colloque annuel de l’ICREF, qui se tiendra partout au Canada, de Halifax à Vancouver, jusqu’à Yellowknife. Les objectifs des membres fondateurs ont été « d’encourager, de coordonner et de diffuser la recherche sur le vécu des femmes et d’assurer à celles-ci une place égale dans l’ensemble des connaissances et des recherches sur le Canada, son peuple, sa culture, son économie et ses politiques » (Une brève histoire de l’ICREF, document préparé par Linda Clippingdale). Dès 1977, l’Institut prépare sa première publication, un répertoire de la recherche sur les femmes et le travail sous la direction de Susan Mann Trofimenkoff. Dès 1978, l’ICREF a décerné un certain nombre de subventions chaque année, finançant ainsi des centaines de projets entrepris par des chercheuses communautaires et universitaires. Naomi Griffiths, Susan Mann-Trofimenkoff et Francine Fournier sont devenues les premières membres honoraires de l’ICREF en 1980. Entre autres, un prix nommé en l’honneur de Muriel Duckworth (présidente de l’ICREF de 1979 à 1980) a été mis en place. L’ICREF a lancé deux séries de documents. "Les Documents de l’ICREF" sont parus pour la première fois en 1980, et "Perspectives féministes" a vu le jour en 1985. En 1981, l’ICREF commence a publié un Bulletin trimestriel à l’intension de ses membres. En 1982, il publie pour la première fois les Actes de son colloque.

Les premières années de l’ICREF ont été marquées par la recherche d’une source de financement stable. En 1979, l’ICREF obtient une aide financière au fonctionnement conséquente du Programme de promotion de la femme du Secrétariat d’État, qui lui permet d’acquérir une stabilité financière. Ainsi, l’ICREF déménage, engage du personnel et peut ainsi offrir une gamme plus étendue de services à ses membres. Cependant au-delà du financement reçu du gouvernement canadien, et depuis ses débuts, les activités de l’Institut ont été financées par diverses sources, notamment par des dons, les cotisations des membres, la vente de publications, mais également grâce au soutien de diverses associations telles que l’Association des Universités et Collèges du Canada.

Dans les années 1990, l’ICREF a modifié ses pratiques pour une plus grande inclusivité. Face aux multiples formes d’inégalités et d’oppression non prises en compte par le mouvement des femmes, l’organisation a réfléchi à l’application de l’intersectionnalité dans ses programmes et sa structure organisationnelle. Plusieurs conférences ont vu le jour (Femmes et handicap en 1990; Faire les liens en 1992). Les structures organisationnelles de l’ICREF ont fait l’objet d’un examen, et un comité d’éthique de la recherche a vu le jour (1994). Dans le début des années 2000, l’ICREF a souhaité intensifier ses efforts pour une analyse féministe intégrée (AFI) plus approfondie. Ainsi, l’organisation a restructuré son conseil d’administration (2001) pour une représentation plus diversifiée des groupes d’équité identifiés : femmes racisées, femmes en situation de handicap, lesbiennes et les bisexuelles, femmes transgenres, femmes autochtones, une plus grande représentation régionale, membres du conseil d’administration représenté par au moins 25% de francophones). Elle a également élaboré un plan stratégique centré sur la question de l’intersectionnalité.

L’ICREF a soutenu et mené de nombreux projets de recherche portant sur les femmes au Canada. Vers le milieu de sa première décennie, l’ICREF a mis au point deux grands projets : la Banque de chercheuses et le Répertoire des périodiques pour femmes canadiennes. Les membres de l’ICREF ont présenté de nombreux mémoires au nom de l’égalité des femmes, notamment des mémoires au CRTC sur le sexisme dans les médias, au Groupe d’étude fédéral-provincial sur les victimes du crime, au Comité fédéral d’examen de la politique culturelle, à la Commission MacDonald, au Groupe d’étude fédéral sur la garde des enfants, et à la Commission royale d’enquête sur les nouvelles technologies de reproduction. Parmi les nombreux projets entrepris, l’ICREF a participé à : l’étude pilote « La participation des femmes à la vie politique » commandée par l’UNESCO (1985-1988); une trousse de ressources communautaires sur les nouvelles technologies de reproduction qui a servi à la préparation des mémoires pour la Commission royale sur les nouvelles technologies de reproduction (1988-1990); la participation des femmes canadiennes à la Conférence mondiale sur les femmes de 1995 à Beijing; une recherche-action participative sur les effets sociaux, politiques et culturels du développement économique dans le nord du Canada pour les femmes (FemNorthNet); une recherche pancanadienne sur les impacts des changements dans l’emploi et la prestation des services publics sur les femmes (Changing Public Services).

CRIAW-ICREF is "a research institute that provides tools to help organizations take action to promote social justice and equality for all women" (, accessed June 3, 2021). CRIAW-ICREF is a Canadian non-profit, member-based organization. It depends on the support of its members and donors. It focuses on the development of feminist research and its dissemination for educational and advocacy purposes. It is the only national bilingual feminist organization in Canada that focuses exclusively on research.

CRIAW was founded by feminists, academics, community members and activists, in the wake of International Women's Year (1975) to address the lack of existing research on women and their experiences. The founding conference, with seventy members, was held in Ottawa in April 1976. During this conference, objectives were established, by-laws adopted, a Board of Directors elected, and the name of the new organization was chosen, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women. In November 1976, a forum on research and women was held at Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax. This meeting was the beginning of CRIAW's annual conference, which will be held across Canada from Halifax to Vancouver to Yellowknife. The objectives of the founding members were "to encourage, coordinate and disseminate research on women's experiences and to ensure that women have an equal place in the body of knowledge and research on Canada, its people, culture, economy and politics" (A Brief History of CRIAW, prepared by Linda Clippingdale). By 1977, the Institute was preparing its first publication, an inventory of research on women and work, edited by Susan Mann Trofimenkoff. Beginning in 1978, CRIAW awarded several grants each year, funding hundreds of projects undertaken by community and academic researchers. Naomi Griffiths, Susan Mann-Trofimenkoff and Francine Fournier became CRIAW's first honorary members in 1980. Among other prices, an award named in honour of Muriel Duckworth (CRIAW president from 1979 to 1980) was established. CRIAW launched two series of documents. “CRIAW Papers” was first published in 1980 and “Feminist Perspectives” was launched in 1985. In 1981, CRIAW began publishing a quarterly newsletter for its members. In 1982, it published its first conference proceedings.

CRIAW's early years were marked by the search for a stable source of funding. In 1979, CRIAW received substantial operating funding from the Secretary of State's Women's Program, which gave it financial stability. CRIAW moved, hired staff and was able to offer a wider range of services to its members. However, beyond the funding received from the Canadian government, since its inception, the Institute's activities have been funded from a variety of sources, including donations, membership fees, sales of publications, and support from various associations such as the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.

In the 1990s, CRIAW changed its practices to become more inclusive. In front of multiple forms of inequality and oppression not addressed by the women's movement, the organization reflected on the application of intersectionality in its programs and organizational structure. Several conferences were held (Women and Disability in 1990; Making the Links in 1992). CRIAW's organizational structures were reviewed, and a research ethics committee was established (1994). In the early 2000s, CRIAW wanted to intensify its efforts towards a more in-depth integrated feminist analysis (IFA). Thus, the organization restructured its Board of Directors (2001) to ensure a more diverse representation of identified equity groups: racialized women, women with disabilities, lesbian and bisexual women, transgendered women, Aboriginal women, greater regional representation, and at least 25% Francophone board members). It has also developed a strategic plan that focuses on the issue of intersectionality.

CRIAW has supported and conducted numerous research projects related to women in Canada. Midway through its first decade, CRIAW developed two major projects: the Women's Research Bank and the Canadian Women's Periodical Directory. CRIAW members have made numerous submissions on behalf of women's equality, including submissions to the CRTC on sexism in the media, the Federal-Provincial Task Force on Victims of Crime, the Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee, the MacDonald Commission, the Federal Task Force on Child Care, and the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Among the many projects undertaken, CRIAW has participated in: the pilot study " Women’s Involvement in Political Life" commissioned by UNESCO (1985-1988); a community resource kit on new reproductive technologies that was used to prepare briefs for the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies (1988-1990); Canadian women's participation in the 1995 World Conference on Women in Beijing; participatory action research on the social, political and cultural effects of economic development in northern Canada on women (FemNorthNet); pan-Canadian research on the impacts of changes in employment and public service delivery on women (Changing Public Services).

Beadle, Gert

  • Pessoa singular
  • 1915-2001
Gert Beadle was born in 1915 and grew up in a farming community outside of Fort Frances, Ontario where she ran the general store & post office. In 1952 she moved with her husband Ralf, to Thunder Bay, Ontario where she was a nurse and became active in the women's movement. She helped establish the Women’s Crisis Homes Incorporated, which grew to include a women’s centre, a rape crisis line, a women’s health collective, a women’s credit union, and a feminist newspaper. She was also a board member of the Thunder Bay Women's Centre and a founding member of the Northern Women's Credit Union. She was also the first president of Crisis Homes Inc. '76, an organization providing support services to battered women. In 1985 she moved to Kelowna, BC where she spent the rest of her life. Member of the collective Northern Woman's Journal, she has published many articles and two volumes of poetry and an essay: Salt and Yeast, Selected Poems (1977), Rising: selected poems (1980) and The resisting spirit (1984). The Kelowna Women’s resources Centre created the Gert Beadle Award in her memory. This award recognizes the value of invisible work done at the community level to enhance women’s equality. Gert Beadle passed away July 11, 2001 at Kelowna, BC at the age of 86.

Freeman, Barbara M.

  • Pessoa singular
Barbara M. Freeman holds a Bachelor of Journalism degree and a Master of Arts in Canadian Studies from Carleton University. She graduated with a Ph.D. in History from Concordia University in Montreal. She began teaching at Carleton University in Ottawa in 1980 after a career in broadcast journalism. As an adjunct research professor of journalism at Carleton University, her key research areas were communications history, and gender and diversity issues in the media in the School of Journalism and Communication. She is the author of Beyond Bylines: Media Workers and Women’s Rights in Canada (2011), The Satellite Sex: The Media and Women’s Issues in English Canada, 1966-1971 (2001), and of Kit’s Kingdom: the Journalism of Kathleen Blake Colema (1989). In these essays, she examines historical cases of women who worked in print and broadcast media and were committed activists as well. Her case studies illustrate how the language and foci of women’s rights have changed from the late 19th century until the year 2000 as her subjects sought equality in education, suffrage, fair employment practices, reproductive and sexual freedom, and the rights of indigenous women. She has also published articles in several anthologies and journals. She is a founding and executive member of the Media and Communication History Committee and a member of the Canadian Committee on Women’s History.
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